“Aim: To develop a patient-based Simple Clinical Colitis A

“Aim: To develop a patient-based Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (P-SCCAI) of ulcerative colitis (UC) activity and to

compare it with the clinician-based SCCAI, C-reactive protein (CRP) and Physician’s Global Assessment (PGA) of UC activity. PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 nmr Monitoring UC activity may give patients disease control and prevent unnecessary examinations.

Methods: Consecutive UC patients randomly completed the P-SCCAI either before or after consultation. Gastroenterologists assessed patients’ UC activity on the same day. Overall agreement between SCCAI and P-SCCAI was calculated with Spearman’s Rho and Mann Whitney U test. Agreement regarding active disease versus remission and agreement at domain level were calculated by percent agreement and kappa (lc).

Results: 149 (response rate 84.7%) UC patients participated. P-SCCAI and SCCAI showed a large correlation (rs= 0.79). The medians (IQR) of the P-SCCAI (3.78;0-15) tended to be higher than those of the SCCAI (2.86;0-13), although this difference did not reach statistical significance (z= 1.711 p =0.088). In 77% of the cases the difference

between clinicians and patients’ scores was not clinically different (i.e. 2). Percentage agreement between clinicians and patients, judging UC as active or in remission, was 87%, rs = 0.66, tc=0.66, indicating a substantial agreement. In general patients tended to report more physical symptoms than clinicians. C-Reactive protein (CRP) was found to have a significant association with both P-SCCAI and SCCAI (K=0.32, K=0.39 respectively) as was PGA (K=0.73 for both indices).

Conclusions: The P-SCCAI is a promising tool given its substantial agreement with the SCCAI 5-Fluoracil and its feasibility. Therefore, P-SCCAI

can complement SCCAI in clinical care and research. (C) 2012 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The objective of this study was to measure distress at three points during the course of chemotherapy: beginning, middle, and the last day of therapy in a private cancer center in Brazil.

Methods: One hundred patients were assessed at three points during chemotherapy using the Distress Thermometer (DT) and the Hospital Anxiety selleckchem and Depression Scale (HADS). The data were analyzed with the support of SPSS 15.0 software.

Results: At the beginning of chemotherapy, patients mean scores were distress (82%), anxiety (78%) and depression (55%). In the middle of treatment, the percentages of distress, anxiety and depression decreased to 36.4, 25 and 25.3%, respectively. On the last day, the levels were 18.2% for distress and 14.3% for both anxiety and depression.

Conclusion: Distress is highest in these patients at the beginning of chemotherapy, suggesting that evaluation of patients for psychosocial needs is important. Screening with a simple rapid instrument such as the DT is feasible and useful. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Introduction and objectives.

The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals in

The weight loss treatment method followed by obese individuals influenced the correlations between PM levels, suggesting a change of the intake sources with time. Except

for few gender differences recorded between the urinary DEHP metabolites correlations, no other differences were observed for the urinary PM levels as a function of age, body mass index or waist circumference. Linear regression analysis showed almost no significance of the relationship between measured urinary PMs and serum free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for all obese individuals participating to the study, while for the control samples, several PMs were significantly associated with the serum TSH levels. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Diabetic ATR inhibition retinopathy (DR) is an independent predictor of heart failure (HF) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear how DR is related to the development of HF. We hypothesized

that DR is associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, which is well recognized to subsequently result in HF.

Methods and Results: Data were collected in 63 consecutive patients with DM and LV ejection fraction (EF) >= 50%. Patients were excluded if they had HF diagnosed according to the modified Framingham criteria. Doppler echocardiographic indices including peak early-diastolic mitral annular movement velocity (E’) were obtained in each patient. We also assessed the diastolic index of echocardiographic color kinesis (CK-DI), which proportionally decreases with click here LV relaxation abnormality independently of LV filling pressure, as recently published. The DM patients were divided into groups without (DM-N; n = 30) and with (DM-DR; n = 33) DR. Age, gender, LV end-diastolic dimension, EF, E/A ratio of the transmitral flow velocity curves, E’, and E/E’ were not different between DM-N and DM-DR. However, CK-DI was significantly lower in DM-DR than DM-N.

Conclusions: DR is associated with LV diastolic

dysfunction, and this may at least in part explain the increased incidence of HF in DM patients with Liproxstatin-1 datasheet DR. (J Cardiac Fail 2011;17:556-560)”
“We investigate the exchange bias fields and compositional depth profiles of the NiFe (bottom)/FeMn/CoFe (top) trilayers after a thermal treatment at different annealing temperatures. Interestingly, the magnetic hysteresis measurement revealed that the NiFe/FeMn/CoFe trilayers exhibit a contrasting variation of the exchange bias fields at the two interfaces in a completely different way to each other. High angle x-ray diffraction indicates that there is no distinguishable effect of a thermal treatment on the NiFe (111) and FeMn (111) peaks. The Ni 2p and Mn 2p x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrums near these two interfaces along with the XPS compositional depth profiles are measured.

The cDNA was designated as AhMPK6 based on its high identity with

The cDNA was designated as AhMPK6 based on its high identity with AtMPK6 of Arabidopsis. The AhMPK6 encodes a 397 amino acid polypeptide that shows high similarity with MsSIMK, NtSIPK, OsSIPK of Medicago, tobacco and rice respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that AhMPK6 belongs to the A2 subgroup of MAPK family. When expressed as a translational fusion with GFP, AhMPK6 displayed predominant nuclear localization. The conditional overexpression of AhMPK6 resulted in hypersensitive response

(HR)-like cell death in tobacco, with a simultaneous upregulation of HR-marker gene transcripts and various defense response gene transcripts. The AhMPK6 induced gene expression suggests an overlapping or partially redundant function with previously reported AhMPK3. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Objective-To determine thiamine-dependent enzyme activities in various tissue samples of Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and thiaminase click here activities

in dietary fish.

Design-Cross-sectional study.

Animals-11 Pacific harbor seals with thiamine deficiency and 5 control seals.

Procedures-Seals underwent evaluation to rule out various diseases and exposure to toxins. For seals that died, measurement of thiamine-dependent enzymes in liver and brain samples and determination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in liver, brain, and muscle samples were performed. Thiaminase activity in dietary fish was determined.

Results-8 SCH727965 supplier seals with thiamine deficiency died. Affected seals typically had acute neurologic signs with few nonspecific findings detected by means of clinicopathologic tests and histologic examination of tissue samples. Thiamine-dependent enzyme activities in liver samples of affected seals were significantly lower than those in control liver samples.

The primary activation ratios and latencies for enzymes indicated that brain tissue was more affected by thiamine deficiency than liver tissue. Activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase were more affected by thiamine deficiency than those of transketolase and ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. For control seals, the mtDNA copy number in muscle samples was significantly lower than that for affected seals; conversely, the copy number in control liver samples was significantly greater than that of affected seals. Thiaminase activity MK-0518 was substantially higher in smelt than it was in other types of dietary fish.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of analyses in this study confirmed a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency for affected seals resulting from high thiaminase activity in dietary fish, inadequate vitamin administration, and increased thiamine demand caused by pregnancy and lactation.”
“Based on accumulating evidence, simulation appears to be a basic computational mechanism in the brain that supports a broad spectrum of processes from perception to social cognition.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3518047]“

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3518047]“
“The idea that an inflammatory process is involved in Alzheimer’s disease ( AD) Selleckchem EGFR inhibitor was proposed already hundred years ago but only the past twenty years inflammation-related proteins have been identified within plaques. A number of acute-phase proteins colocalize with the extracellular amyloid fibrils, the so called A beta-associated proteins. Activated microglia and astrocytes surrounding amyloid deposits express receptors of innate immunity and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this paper we review the evidence for involvement of innate immunity

in the early stages of the pathological cascade of AD. Diffuse plaques, buy ON-01910 the initial neuropathological lesion in the cerebral neocortex, contain next to A beta also apolipoprotein E, clusterin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and activated complement proteins. Interestingly, genetic studies have shown gene-loci to be associated with AD for all these proteins, except alpha 1-antichymotrpsin.

Fibrillar A beta can, through stimulation of toll-like receptors and CD-14 on glial cells, activate pathways for increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This pathway, inducing production of proinflammatory cytokines, is under genetic control. The finding that the responsiveness of the innate immunity is higher in offspring with a parental history of late-onset AD indicates heritable traits for AD that are related to inflammatory processes. Prospective epidemiological studies which report that higher serum levels of certain acute-phase proteins are associated

with cognitive decline or dementia provide additional evidence for the early involvement of inflammation in AD pathogenesis. The reviewed neuropathological, epidemiological and genetic findings show evidence for involvement of the innate-immunity in the early stages of pathological cascade as well as for the hypothesis that the innate immunity contributes to the etiology of late-onset AD.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control many important aspects of plant development, suggesting these molecules may also have played key roles in the evolution of developmental processes in plants. However, evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) studies BIX 01294 ic50 of miRNAs have been held back by technical difficulties in gene identification. To help solve this problem, we have developed a two-step procedure for the efficient identification of miRNA genes in any plant species. As a test case, we have studied the evolution of the MIR164 family in the angiosperms. We have identified novel MIR164 genes in three species occupying key phylogenetic positions and used these, together with published sequence data, to partially reconstruct the evolution of the MIR164 family since the last common ancestor of the extant flowering plants.

The Bragg wavelengths of

The Bragg wavelengths of PND-1186 the FBG in the PMF along slow or fast axis show redshifts with the increase in strain with sensitivities of 8.77×10(-4) and 9.11×10(-4) nm/mu epsilon, respectively, whereas the interferometric peak wavelength of the SLM exhibits a blueshift with a sensitivity of 1.9437×10(-2) nm/mu epsilon for the peak with an order number of 420. The opposite strain sensitivities and the pronounced difference in the bandwidth of the FBG resonance peak and that of the SLM, together with the controllability on the wavelength spacing of the SLM neighboring transmission maxima, provide a variety of alternatives to realize

wavelength tuning for many practical applications.”
“This study was performed to compare flavor, texture, and sensory profiles of cream cheese and cholesterol-removed cream cheese made from whole milk and cream. The cholesterol was removed by crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin and the cheeses were stored at 7 degrees C for 4 week. To quantify the flavor compounds, the cheeses (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 week) were extracted by solid-phase microextraction, analyzed by GC-MS and quantified by GC-flame ionization

detector (FID). Tentatively identified flavor compounds check details were 11 acids, 2 ketones, 1 amine, 1 alcohol, 2 lactone, and 1 alkene. In texture profile analysis such as hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and sensory analysis such as appearance, flavor, taste, and texture properties were not significantly different (p>0.05) between two cheeses. On the basis of our results, it is concluded that no adverse changes was shown in the cholesterol-removed cream cheese in flavor, texture, and sensory characteristics during 4-week storage.”
“The need for an improved vaccine against tuberculosis has never been more urgent. The HIV epidemic and the emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium

tuberculosis mean that global control of this pathogen remains inadequate. The existing vaccine, BCG, confers only variable protection against pulomonary disease. Exposure to environmental mycobacteria may contribute to this variability in protective efficacy. Protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis find more is dependant on a cell-mediated immune response. Boosting BCG with a subunit vaccine, and/or replacing BCG with an improved BCG are both strategies currently being investigated. Since 2002, there have been increasing numbers of TB vaccine candidated entering into clinical trials. The first of these candidates, MVA85A, is safe and highly immunogenic in all trials to date. In addition, the cellular immune response induced is highly polyfunctional. The protective efficacy of MVA85A will be evaluated in Phase IIb trial commencing in early 2009 in South African infants.”
“We investigate spallation in solid and liquid Cu at high strain rates induced by planar shock loading with classical molecular dynamics.

Several Salmonella serovars and Proteus mirablis have since been

Several Salmonella serovars and Proteus mirablis have since been shown to harbor SGI1 or related islands carrying various sets of resistance genes and some distinct groups have emerged. SGI1 is

an integrative mobilizable element and can be transferred experimentally into Escherichia coli. However, within serovars, isolates recovered from different parts of the world appear to be clonal, indicating that SGI1 movement may be rare. Potential reservoirs in food-producing animals or in ornamental fish have been identified for some serovars.”
“The addition of nanoparticles to polymer systems with an existing phase-separated morphology, such as polymer blends, represents an innovative approach to controlling the microstructure and, hence, the macroscopic properties of the material. During the melt mixing of the constituents, the particles migrate toward specific regions MI-503 cost of the material and are driven click here by more favorable thermodynamic interactions. Kinetic effects related to the high viscosity of the polymer melts, however, may lead to nonequilibrium morphologies. This makes the mixing procedure crucial for controlling the space distribution of the filler and, hence, the microstructure of the blend and its final properties. We focused on this topic by investigating the effect of the sequence of addition of the constituents

in blends of polystyrene and polyamide 6 filled with an organoclay prepared by melt compounding. We show that the mixing procedure could bring about alterations in the onset of cocontinuity, which could be exploited to enhance the high-temperature mechanical strength of the blends. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 3712-3719, 2011″
“The initial development of photoinduced anisotropy in highly photosensitive monolayers of an aminoazobenzene molecule (dMR, a derivative of o-methyl red) that are initially randomized using circularly polarized light is found to be significantly slower than in monolayers randomized by thermal relaxation. We propose that this is a direct consequence of the slow thermal relaxation of isomers from the R406 cis to the trans state and suggest that such considerations

are important in designing even more sensitive photoactive monolayers and in understanding their photodynamics. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3587572]“
“Streptococcus pyogenes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. A wealth of genomic information related to this pathogen has facilitated exploration of the proteome, particularly in response to environmental conditions thought to mimic various aspects of pathogenesis. Proteomic approaches are also used to identify immunoreactive proteins for vaccine development and to identify proteins that may induce autoimmunity. These studies have revealed new mechanisms involved in regulating the S. pyogenes proteome, which has opened up new avenues in the study of S.

Related results from applications of those magnetic resonance tec

Related results from applications of those magnetic resonance techniques in lifestyle intervention studies for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes are also reported. Cross-sectional gender-related differences in lipid compartments and different types of obesity are explained. Longitudinal changes in adipose tissue compartments derived from repeated magnetic resonance examinations during lifestyle interventions are explored. Some hints regarding HSP990 suitable measured quantities that may predict the development of insulin

resistance and success or failure of lifestyle interventions are reported.”
“Genes encoding proteins in a common pathway AZD8055 nmr are often found near each other along bacterial chromosomes. Several explanations have been proposed to account for the evolution of these structures. For instance, natural selection

may directly favour gene clusters through a variety of mechanisms, such as increased efficiency of coregulation. An alternative and controversial hypothesis is the selfish operon model, which asserts that clustered arrangements of genes are more easily transferred to other species, thus improving the prospects for survival of the cluster. According to another hypothesis (the persistence model), genes that are in close proximity are less likely to be disrupted by deletions. Here we develop computational models to study the conditions under which gene clusters can evolve and persist. First, we examine the selfish operon model by re-implementing the simulation and running it under a wide range of conditions. Second, we introduce and study a Moran process in which there is natural selection for gene clustering and rearrangement occurs by genome inversion events. Finally, we develop and study a model C188-9 that includes selection and inversion, which tracks the occurrence and fixation of rearrangements. Surprisingly, gene clusters fail to evolve under a wide

range of conditions. Factors that promote the evolution of gene clusters include a low number of genes in the pathway, a high population size, and in the case of the selfish operon model, a high horizontal transfer rate. The computational analysis here has shown that the evolution of gene clusters can occur under both direct and indirect selection as long as certain conditions hold. Under these conditions the selfish operon model is still viable as an explanation for the evolution of gene clusters.”
“Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice, affecting approximately 250,000 Canadians and accounting for more than 120,000 hospitalizations each year.

Both damage of the NCC and

the EP affect the height of th

Both damage of the NCC and

the EP affect the height of the vertebral body. No spinal stenosis was found in any case. In most cases, the adjacent superior and inferior vertebral EP to damaged segments had a compensatory growth that maintained the straight spinal shape.

Conclusions In summary, unilateral direct lesion of the EP by hemicircumferential thoracoscopic electrocoagulation modifies vertebral growth, but is not able to induce true scoliostic curves in pigs. Only animals with damaged NCC developed mild scoliotic curves of lordotic type. This work rediscovers and emphasizes the decisive role of the neurocentral cartilage in the ethiopatogeny of idiopathic find more scoliosis.”
“C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum marker highly upregulated in inflammation after bacterial infection. Robust, reliable GSK2126458 and

quick quantification of CRP would be a substitute for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with superior diagnostic value. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based sensors coated with specific antibodies and integrated into lab-on-chip systems are in development for rapid point of care quantification. In this study, we isolated three CRP specific single chain (sc)Fv antibody fragments using phage display from an antibody gene library. Their affinities ranged from 2.7 x 10(-8) to 1.0 x 10(-8) M when measured by surface plasmon resonance. ScFv antibody fragment LA13-IIE3 showed best affinity, high long-term stability and remarkable resistance to denaturation. This scFv antibody fragment was coupled to a QCM sensor. DMH1 CRP quantification in up to 15 samples sequentially measured on the same sensor with intermitting regeneration by buffer was demonstrated.”
“The objective of our project is to reveal the possible etiological factors of different congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated single ventricular septal defect (VSD) after surgical correction or with lethal outcome. The birth outcomes of these cases in the function of maternal socio-demographic features were evaluated. Data are based on 1,659 VSD cases, 2,534 matched controls

and 38,151 all controls without any defects, in addition in the mothers of 19,393 malformed controls with other isolated defects in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. VSD had mild female excess with a higher rate of preterm birth and mainly low birth weight indicating intrauterine growth restriction of affected fetuses, particularly in males and full-term or average weighted cases. The mothers of cases with VSD had lower socioeconomic status and higher rate of smoking and particularly drinking habit. The evaluation of medically recorded pregnancy complications showed an association of gestational diabetes with a higher risk of VSD.

Detection of BoNTA from rat serum samples was performed over time

Detection of BoNTA from rat serum samples was performed over time.

Results: We found that BoNTA and LCA were able to cleave the substrates whereas mutated LCA and a different serotype of BoNT, BoNTB, could not. SSA had significantly more arbitrary fluorescing units compared to the FRET substrate SNAPTide, and the SSA assay could detect 0.1 nM of BoNTA or LCA comfortably (p = <0.05) in

a 20-mu l reaction. No significant interference was observed when serum was present in the reaction buffer. Due to negligible background JQ-EZ-05 datasheet noise, the SSA FRET assay could detect BoNTA from spiked rat serum even after 256 min.

Discussion: The greatest advantage of the FRET assay is its extreme rapidity, its cost effectiveness, and unlike ELISA, its ability to detect biologically active toxin. SSA is a better FRET substrate for detecting BoNTA toxin (detected 0.1 nM concentration). Because serum present in the assay reaction did not cause any appreciable interference, the assay can be used to detect BoNTA in serum samples. Therefore, the SSA FRET assay can be used for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies,

screening inhibitors, and detecting BoNTA in serum samples. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights S3I-201 inhibitor reserved.”
“Biohydrogen production from a simulated fruit wastewater (soluble COD = 3.17 +/- A 0.10 g L-1) was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) of 2 L operational volume without biomass inoculation, heat pre-treatment or pH adjustment, resulting in a low operational pH (3.75 +/- A 0.09). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied from 15 to 5 h. A strong negative correlation (p < 0.01) between the biogas production rate and the HRT was observed. Biogas production rates were higher at 30 A degrees C than at 25 A degrees C (p < 0.01), when the CSTR was operated under the same HRT. The biogas hydrogen content was estimated as high as 55.8 +/- A 2.3 % and 55.4 +/- A 2.5 % at 25 and 30 A degrees C, respectively. The main fermentation end products were acetic and butyric acids, followed by

ethanol. Significant differences (p < 0.01) during the operation of the CSTR at 25 or 30 A degrees C were identified for butyric acid at almost all HRTs examined. Simulation LY2835219 of the acidogenesis process in the CSTR (based on COD and carbon balances) indicated the possible metabolic compounds produced at 25 and 30 A degrees C reactions and provided an adequate fit of the experimental data.”
“Objective: Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) is a frequently observed condition in childhood. The most common and effective surgical therapy for COME is myringotomy with insertion of a ventilation tube (VT). Our aims were to investigate the combined effect of myringotomy and the topical application of Colchicine solution to the external ear canal for the prolongation of patency in the treatment of patients with COME and to evaluate the ototoxicity of Colchicine applied directly to the middle ear.


colonization Users of intrauterine devices h


colonization. Users of intrauterine devices had an increased risk of bacterial vaginosis or of contracting U. urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Candida Small molecule library species. Genital complaints were an independent indicator of Candida species, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis.Chlamydia trachomatis infections were often asymptomatic. It is concluded that the hormonal milieu and non-physiological factors are major determinants of the vaginal flora. If diagnosis of genital infections is based on symptoms alone and not on culture results, it may be erroneous. Sexual abuse should be investigated when a child presents with a sexually transmitted disease.”
“The limiting factor for successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is graft-versus-host

disease (GvHD), a post-transplant disorder that results from immune-mediated attack of recipient tissue by donor T cells contained in the transplant. Mouse models of GvHD have provided important insights into the pathophysiology of this disease, which have helped to improve the success rate of HSCT in humans. The kinetics with which GvHD develops distinguishes acute from chronic GvHD, and it is clear from studies of mouse VS-4718 research buy models of GvHD (and studies of human HSCT) that the pathophysiology of these two forms is also distinct. Mouse models also further the basic understanding of the immunological responses involved in GvHD pathology, such as antigen recognition and presentation, the involvement of the thymus and immune reconstitution after transplantation. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of currently available mouse models of

acute and chronic GvHD, highlighting their benefits and limitations, and discuss research and clinical opportunities for the future.”
“Introduction and objectives: To determine whether mortality from acute myocardial infarction has reduced in Spain and the possibly related therapeutic factors.

Methods: Nine thousand, nine hundred and forty-nine patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial Selleck GKT137831 infarction admitted to the Coronary Care Unit were identified from PRIAMHO I, II and MASCARA registries performed in 1995, 2000 and 2005, with a 6 month follow-up.

Results: From 1995 to 2005 patients were increasingly more likely to have hypertension, hyperlipidemia and anterior infarction, but age of onset and the proportion of females did not increase. Twenty-eight-day mortality rates were 12.6%, 12.3% and 6% in 1995, 2000 and 2005 respectively, and 15.3%, 14.6% and 9.4% at 6 months (both P-trend <.001). Multivariate analysis was performed and the adjusted odds ratio for 28-day mortality for an infarction occuring in 2005 (compared with 1995) was 0.62 (95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.88) whereas the adjusted hazard ratio for mortality at 6 months was 0.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.67).