Table 7 Response on climate change
regarding flight behaviour and mobility Type of flight behaviour/mobility per species C. pamphilus M. jurtina M. athalia P. argus Duration of flying bouts + + + + Tendency to start flying + + + = Proportion of time spent flying + – + = Tortuosity = = = = Net displacement + – + = +, increase; −, decrease; =, neutral The possibility to reach new habitats is a prerequisite under changing climatic conditions (Vos et al. 2008). Individuals must be able to cross distances over unsuitable environments. This study indicates that climate change may increase dispersal propensity in butterflies, as ectothermic species with LCZ696 manufacturer generally poor mobility. Incorporation of these insights in metapopulation MK5108 datasheet models
is necessary to improve predictions on the effects of climate change on shifting ranges. Acknowledgments This research was funded by the Dutch national research programme ‘Climate Changes Spatial Planning’ and is part of the strategic research programme ‘Sustainable spatial development of ecosystems, landscapes, seas and regions’ (Project Ecological Resilience) which is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Conservation and Food Quality, and carried out by Wageningen University and Research Centre. The Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is a joint project by Dutch Butterfly Conservation and Statistics Netherlands (CBS), supported financially by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality. We thank Paul Opdam for helpful comments on the manuscript; the staff of the National Park “De Hoge Veluwe” for permission to work in the Park; Larissa Conradt, René Jochem, Dynein Ruut Wegman, and members of the “Friends of the Hoge Veluwe” Fauna working group for practical
help and tips on the fieldwork; and Gerrit Gort and Hans Baveco for help on statistics. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Appendix 1 See Fig. 4. Fig. 4 Kaplan–Meier survival curve for flying bouts of M. athalia with temperature as single covariate. Under low temperature (solid line; less or equal to 14°C), butterflies terminate flying bouts sooner than under intermediate temperature (between 14 and 25°C; dashed line; P = 2.9E − 08) and high temperature (more than 25°C; dotted line; P = 1.1E − 09). Appendix 2 See Table 8. Table 8 Correlations between covariates from field study Species C. pamphilus G Y T R C W Gender (G) 1 Year (Y) 0.30 1 Temperature (T) 0.03 −0.42 1 BTSA1 concentration Radiation (R) −0.05 −0.23 0.44 1 Cloudiness (C) −0.09 0.31 −0.67 −0.30 1 Wind speed (W) −0.06 −0.07 0.05 0.33 −0.13 1 Species M. jurtina G Y T R C W Gender (G) 1 Year (Y) 0.33 1 Temperature (T) −0.21 −0.84 1 Radiation (R) 0.15 0.20 −0.