The structure of DNA-bound cGAS reveals a complex composed of dim

The structure of DNA-bound cGAS reveals a complex composed of dimeric

cGAS bound to two molecules of DNA. Functional analyses of cGAS mutants demonstrate that both the CBL0137 in vivo protein-protein interface and the two DNA binding surfaces are critical for cGAS activation. These results provide insights into the mechanism of DNA sensing by cGAS.”
“TGP, extracted from the traditional Chinese herb root of Paeonia lactiflora pall, has been shown to have therapeutic effect in experimental diabetic nephropathy. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the effects of TGP on oxidative stress were investigated in the kidney of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. TGP (50,100, 200 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for 8 weeks. TGP treatment in all three doses significantly lowered 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate in diabetic rats and attenuated glomerular volume. TGP treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced indices for tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic rats. The level of MDA was significantly increased in the kidney of diabetic rats and attenuated by TGP treatment at the dose of 200 mg/kg. TGP treatment in a dose-dependent manner decreased the level of 3-NT protein of the kidney which increased under diabetes.

T-AOC was significantly reduced in diabetic Vorinostat clinical trial rat kidney and remarkably increased by TGP treatment at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Activity of antioxidant enzyme such as SOD. CAT was

markedly elevated by TGP treatment with 200 mg/kg. check details Western blot analysis showed that p-p38 MAPK and NF-kappa B p65 protein expression increased in diabetic rat kidney, which were significantly decreased by TGP treatment. It seems likely that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidneys, while TGP can prevent diabetes-associated renal damage against oxidative stress. (C) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Dialysis vascular access (DVA) care is being increasingly provided in freestanding office-based centers (FOC). Small-scale studies have suggested that DVA care in a FOC results in favorable patient outcomes and lower costs. To further evaluate this issue, data were drawn from incident and prevalent ESRD patients within a 4-year sample (2006-2009) of Medicare claims (USRDS) on cases who receive at least 80% of their DVA care in a FOC or a hospital outpatient department (HOPD). Using propensity score matching techniques, cases with a similar clinical and demographic profile from these two sites of service were matched. Medicare utilization, payments, and patient outcomes were compared across the matched cohorts (n=27,613). Patients treated in the FOC had significantly better outcomes (p<0.001), including fewer related or unrelated hospitalizations (3.8 vs. 4.4), vascular access-related infections (0.18 vs. 0.29), and septicemia-related hospitalizations (0.15 vs. 0.18). Mortality rate was lower (47.9% vs. 53.

The findings provide radiographic evidence of decreased inflammat

The findings provide radiographic evidence of decreased inflammation in human cerebral aneurysms with daily intake of aspirin using macrophages as a surrogate marker for inflammation. (C) 2012 Elsevier

Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) can be produced by myeloid-derived cells to kill cancer cells. Whether this mechanism is used by T cells, and if so, how sTRAIL production is regulated, remains unclear. Our previous studies showed that ex vivo expanded human T cells express TRAIL and NK receptor group 2 (R2), member D (NKG2D), and possess potent anticancer activities both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated in greater detail the mechanisms by which T cells utilize TRAIL and NKG2D to kill lung cancer cells. We demonstrate that human ACY-738 supplier lung cancer cells express TRAIL R2 and NKG2D ligands. Blocking TRAIL or NKG2D during T-cell-lung cancer cell co-cultures significantly reduced T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Cross-linking NKG2D with anti-NKG2D antibody to mimic ligand

binding promoted T cells to produce sTRAIL, which induced apoptosis in lung 3-MA datasheet cancer cells through TRAIL R2. Either neutralizing sTRAIL or blocking lung cancer cell TRAIL R2 significantly reduced T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity to lung cancer cells. This study demonstrates that T cells can mediate anticancer immunity via NKG2D-regulated production of sTRAIL.”
“Biological sulfur removal

can be achieved by reducing sulfate to sulfide with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and then oxidising sulfide to elemental sulfur (S-0) with sulfide oxidising bacteria BMS-754807 (SOB) for recovery. In sulfate-carbon wastewaters lacking electron acceptor for sulfide, excess sulfide will be produced and accumulated in the reactor. This study applied the microbial fuel cell (MFC) cultivated with the SRB + SOB anodic biofilm for treating the sulfate + organic carbon wastewaters. Excess sulfate ions were efficiently converted to sulfide by SRB cells in the biofilm, while the formed sulfide was diffused to the neighboring SOB cells to be irreversibly converted to S-0 with produced electrons being transferred to the anode. The cell-cell sulfide transport principally determined the electron flux of the MFC. Short diffusional distance of sulfide ions between cells significantly reduced the polarization resistances, hence enhancing performance of the MFC. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Anger is a common problem among veterans and has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to improve understanding of how anger and PTSD co-occur by examining gender differences and differences by whether the triggering traumatic event is deployment-related vs. civilian-related in current service members.

To better understand temporal patterns in E and climate, we measu

To better understand temporal patterns in E and climate, we measured the energy balance and meteorology of a semi-deciduous forest in the rainforest-savanna ecotone of northern Mato Grosso, Brazil, over a 7-year period and analyzed regional climate patterns over a 16-year period. Spectral analysis revealed that E

and local climate exhibited consistent cycles over annual, seasonal, and weekly time scales. Annual and seasonal cycles were also apparent in the regional monthly rainfall and humidity time series, and a cycle on the order of 3-5.5 years was also apparent in the regional air temperature time series, which is coincident with the average return interval of El Nio. Annual rates of E were significantly affected by the 2002 El Nio. Prior to this event, annual E was on average 1,011 HM781-36B price Selleck GW4869 mm/year and accounted for 52 % of the annual rainfall, while after, annual E was 931 mm/year and accounted for 42 % of the

annual rainfall. Our data also suggest that E declined significantly over the 7-year study period while air temperature significantly increased, which was coincident with a long-term, regional warming and drying trend. These results suggest that drought and warming induced by El Nio and/or climate change cause declines in E for semi-deciduous forests of the southeast Amazon Basin.”
“Background: Mitochondrial sequence variation provides critical information for studying human evolution and variation. Mitochondrial DNA provides information on the origin of humans, and plays a substantial role in forensics, degenerative diseases, cancers, and aging process. Typically, human mitochondrial DNA has various features

such as HVSI, HVSII, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), restriction enzyme sites, and short tandem repeat (STR).\n\nResults: We present a variome database (MitoVariome) of human mitochondrial DNA sequences. Queries against MitoVariome can be made using accession numbers Combretastatin A4 nmr or haplogroup/continent. Query results are presented not only in text but also in HTML tables to report extensive mitochondrial sequence variation information. The variation information includes repeat pattern, restriction enzyme site polymorphism, short tandem repeat, disease information as well as single nucleotide polymorphism. It also provides a graphical interface as Gbrowse displaying all variations at a glance. The web interface also provides the tool for assigning haplogroup based on the haplogroup-diagnostic system with complete human mitochondrial SNP position list and for retrieving sequences that users query against by using accession numbers.

At 4 hours (sustained response), only Col/Epi and Col/ADP were as

At 4 hours (sustained response), only Col/Epi and Col/ADP were assessed.\n\nResults: The DDAVP mean (min-max range, mu g/kg) based on the patient’s weight was 0.15 (0.12-0.18). Laboratory values mean (min-max range in

U/dl) baseline for VWF:RCo, VWF:Ag, and FVIII: C were 28 (20-36), 34 (25-42), and 40 (29-48), respectively. After a subcutaneous administration, the laboratory values mean (min-max range in U/dl(-1)) achieved for 1 hour for VWF: RCo, VWF: Ag, and FVIII: C were 109 (72-144), 132 (88-166), and selleck kinase inhibitor 151 (96-198), respectively.\n\nPFA 100 (R) CT (Col/Epi < 134 seconds and Col/ADP < 110 seconds) returned to normal values at 1 and 4 hours after a subcutaneous administration.\n\nConclusion: Y-27632 mechanism of action Subcutaneous low-dose DDAVP therapy is at least effective as 0.3 mu g/kg intravenous therapy for children with

type 1 VWD. This study shows that a wider use of DDAVP should be promoted, especially in developing countries.”
“To identify weather controls of beech diameter growth and masting in southern Sweden, we analyze records of monthly weather, regional masting record, and tree-ring chronologies from five beech-dominated stands. The results indicate a strong weather control of temporal pattern of masting events in southern Sweden over the second half of the 20th century. Negative summer temperature anomaly 2 years prior to a mast year, coupled with positive temperature anomaly in the year immediately preceding the same mast year, is a characteristic check details weather pattern associated with known mast years. Strong dependence of beech masting behavior on temperature explains the high degree of regional synchronization of masting events. Growth of beech in southern Sweden is strongly and negatively correlated with previous year’s summer temperature and positively – with previous year’s October temperature. The present study does not provide a conclusive answer in identifying a full set of direct and

indirect effects of climatic variables controlling tree-ring growth, since the negative effect of previous year’s summer temperature may be a result of a temperature-controlled increase in the beech nut production in the current year. Consistent and significant negative departures of ring-width index during mast years support the hypothesis about a trade-off between investment of bioassimilates into production of beech nuts and tree-ring growth. Alternative explanation of growth anomalies in mast years, relating such anomaly to a negative impact of previous year’s growing season, was not supported by the data. We found a limited effect of masting on diameter growth in the following years, indicating that decline in the overall wood production, associated with heavy masting, is short term and typically occurs in the year of actual masting. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

(C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“The present st

(C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of vitamin C as antioxidant to reduce hepatotoxicity and spleen toxicity induced by lead. Lead acetate administered at 20 mg/kg intake caused severe alterations in liver and spleen manifested by hepatocytes degeneration and leucocytes infiltration and fibrosis in liver, ill-defined architecture and large macrophages in the spleen. Vitamin C administered at 500 mg/kg of vitamin C one hour prior to lead reduced hepatotoxicity but did not affect liver

fibrosis. Moreover, Vitamin C reduced the toxicity in spleen characterized by well-defined spleen architecture.”
“Coenzyme A (CoA) is an ubiquitous and essential cofactor, synthesized click here from the precursor pantothenate. Vitamin biosynthetic pathways are normally tightly regulated, including the pathway from pantothenate to CoA. However, no regulation of pantothenate biosynthesis has been identified. EPZ004777 research buy We have recently described an additional component in the pantothenate biosynthetic pathway, PanZ, which promotes the activation

of the zymogen, PanD, to form aspartate a-decarboxylase (ADC) in a CoA-dependent manner. Here we report the structure of PanZ in complex with PanD, which reveals the structural basis for the CoA dependence of this interaction and activation. In addition, we show that PanZ acts as a CoA-dependent inhibitor of ADC catalysis. This inhibitory effect can effectively regulate the biosynthetic pathway to pantothenate, and thereby also regulate CoA biosynthesis. This represents a previously unobserved mode of metabolic regulation whereby a cofactor-utilizing protein negatively regulates the biosynthesis of the same cofactor.”
“Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in Dorsomorphin purchase a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized

that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 degrees C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17 beta-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 mu g BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (SPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85).

All of the three compounds were isolated from the plant for the f

All of the three compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time.”

Breast cancer is one of the most critical cancers and is a major cause of cancer death among women. It is essential to know the survivability of the patients in order to ease the decision making process regarding medical treatment and financial preparation. Recently, the breast cancer data sets have been imbalanced (i.e., the number of survival patients outnumbers the number of non-survival patients) whereas the standard classifiers are not applicable for the imbalanced data sets. The methods to improve survivability prognosis of breast cancer need for study.\n\nMethods: Two well-known five-year CDK inhibitor prognosis models/classifiers [i.e., logistic regression (LR) and decision tree (DT)] are constructed by combining synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), cost-sensitive classifier technique (CSC), under-sampling, bagging, and boosting. The feature selection method is used to select

relevant variables, while the pruning technique is applied to obtain low information-burden models. These methods are applied on data obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The improvements of survivability prognosis of breast cancer are investigated based on the experimental results.\n\nResults: Experimental results confirm that the DT and LR models combined with SMOTE, CSC, and under-sampling generate higher AZD1208 supplier predictive performance consecutively than the original ones. Most of the time, DT and LR models combined with SMOTE and CSC use less informative burden/features

when a feature selection method and a pruning technique are applied.\n\nConclusions: LR is found to have better statistical power than DT in predicting five-year survivability. CSC is superior to SMOTE, under-sampling, bagging, and boosting PF-02341066 purchase to improve the prognostic performance of DT and LR.”
“Objectives. The tension on a wound is one of the important factors that determine the degree of fibrosis and scar formation. We hypothesized that local botulinum toxin type A (Botox) induced paralysis of the musculature subjacent to a surgical wound with a skin defect would minimize the repetitive tensile forces on the surgical wound’s edges, and this will result in a decreased fibroplastic response and fibrosis of the wound.\n\nMethods. This is a prospective randomized experimental study. Two distinct surgical wounds were made to the dorsum of 15 adult rats, respectively. One of the 2 wounds was injected with Botox, and the other wound was used as a control, and this was done for all the rats’ wounds. We evaluated the wound size, the degree of fibrosis and inflammation, the blood vessel proliferation, the thickness of the wound and the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 in the wounds.\n\nResults. There were significant differences of wound size at the 3rd and 4th week between the Botox and control groups (P<0.05).

Subjects were followed on average for 5 years using the Longitudi

Subjects were followed on average for 5 years using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. We examined factors associated with the persistence (>50% of the follow-up time) and onset of new anxiety disorders in youth with bipolar disorder.\n\nResults: Of the 170 youth who had anxiety at intake, 80.6% had an anxiety disorder at any time during the follow-up. Most of the anxiety disorders during the follow-up were of the same type as those present at intake. About 50% of the youth had persistent anxiety, particularly generalized

anxiety disorder (GAD). Persistence was associated with multiple anxiety disorders, less follow-up time in euthymia, less conduct disorder, and less selleck chemicals llc treatment with antimanic and antidepressant medications (all P values <= .05). Twenty-five percent of the sample who did not have an anxiety disorder at intake developed new anxiety disorders during follow-up, most commonly GAD. The onset of new anxiety disorders was significantly associated with being female, lower socioeconomic status, presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorder, and more follow-up time with manic or hypomanic symptoms (all P values <= .05)\n\nConclusions: Anxiety

disorders in youth with bipolar disorder tend to persist, and new-onset anxiety disorders developed in a substantial proportion of the sample. Early identification

of factors associated with the persistence learn more and onset of new anxiety disorders may enable the development of strategies for treatment and prevention. J Clin Psychiatry 2012;73(1):87-94 (C) Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.”
“Pulsed selleck chemical electric fields with nanosecond duration and high amplitude have effects on biological subjects and bring new venue in disease diagnosis and therapy. To address this respect, we investigated the responses of paired tumor and normal human skin cells a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cell line, and its sister normal cell line (TE) – to nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter pulses. When BCC (TE 354.T) and TE (TE 353.SK) cells, cultured under standard conditions, were exposed to 30 ns, 3 MV/m, 50 Hz pulses and tested for membrane permeabilization, viability, morphology, and caspase activation, we found that nanoelectropulse exposure: 1) increased cell membrane permeability in both cell lines but to a greater extent in BCC cells than in normal cells; 2) decreased cell viabilities with BCC cells affected more than normal cells; 3) induced morphological changes in both cell lines including condensed and fragmented chromatin with enlarged nuclei; 4) induced about twice as much caspase activation in BCC cells compared to normal cells.

Typhimurium phage types occurred in both the British garden bird

Typhimurium phage types occurred in both the British garden bird and human populations; 1.6% of all S. Typhimurium (0.2% of all Salmonella) isolates from humans in England and Wales over the period 2000-2010. These findings support the hypothesis that garden

birds act as the primary reservoir of infection for these zoonotic bacteria. Most passerine salmonellosis outbreaks identified occurred at and around feeding stations, which are likely sites of public exposure to sick or dead garden birds and their faeces. We, therefore, advise the public to practise routine personal hygiene measures when feeding wild birds and especially when handling sick wild birds.”
“The compounds pyrostatin A and B, isolated from Streptomyces sp. SA-3501 have been reported as N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase HDAC inhibitor inhibitors with inhibition constants in the micromolar range. Recently, a comparison of NMR spectral data of the pyrostatins has led to a structural revision of the pyrostatins. It was shown that the pyrostatins A and B are identical to the ectoines

5-hydroxectoine and ectoine, respectively. Ectoines are known as compatible osmolytes in many halophilic and stress-tolerant bacteria. We have performed enzymatic experiments demonstrating that neither ectoine nor 5-hydroxyectoine exhibit an inhibitory effect on N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. The previously reported inhibition of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase by pyrostatins A and B may thus be due to the contamination of the compound preparations with a strong N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase inhibitor with an inhibition constant (Ki) in the nanomolar range, as has

been reported in other Streptomyces species.”
“Background: The lung is critical in surveillance and initial defense against pathogens. In humans, as in mice, individual genetic differences strongly modulate pulmonary responses to infectious agents, severity of lung disease, and potential allergic reactions. In a first step towards understanding genetic predisposition and pulmonary molecular networks that underlie individual differences in disease vulnerability, we performed a global analysis of normative AZD1208 mw lung gene expression levels in inbred mouse strains and a large family of BXD strains that are widely used for systems genetics. Our goal is to provide a key community resource on the genetics of the normative lung transcriptome that can serve as a foundation for experimental analysis and allow predicting genetic predisposition and response to pathogens, allergens, and xenobiotics.\n\nMethods: Steady-state polyA+ mRNA levels were assayed across a diverse and fully genotyped panel of 57 isogenic strains using the Affymetrix M430 2.0 array. Correlations of expression levels between genes were determined. Global expression QTL (eQTL) analysis and network covariance analysis was performed using tools and resources in GeneNetwork

A total of 313 children, 53 7% male, showing ESp on the EEG and w

A total of 313 children, 53.7% male, showing ESp on the EEG and with an average initial age of 6.82 (range from 2 to 14 years) were followed for a mean period of 35.7 months. In the initial evaluation, 118 (37.7%) had a history of nonfebrile epileptic seizures (ES). Epileptiform activity (EA) was observed on the EEG in 61% and showed a significantly greater occurrence in children with ES than in those without (P=.000). Of the 118 showing seizures from the start, 53 (44.9%) continued to have seizures; of the 195 without seizures at the start, only 13 (6.67%) developed them. Thus, only 66 (21.1%) children showed ES during the follow-up. ESp disappeared in 237 (75.7%) cases and EA in 221

(70.6%). In the children with ES, it was found that the presence of EA on the first EEG did not INCB028050 price indicate continuation of the ES throughout the remaining period, while the 13 children who presented their first ES in a later period showed a greater occurrence of EA on the initial EEG than those who did not develop ES (P=.001). Evidence of

LY3039478 inhibitor brain injury was observed in 43 (13.7%) children and was associated with a greater continuity of the ES during the study (P=.018). ESp, EA, and ES tend to disappear, suggesting an age-dependent phenomenon. The finding of ESp, particularly in the absence of any evidence of brain injury, indicates a low association with ES and benign outcome.”
“Purpose We report a case of Terrien’s marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. Case Report A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal Selleckchem GSK2245840 changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found

in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. Conclusions This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen.”
“Most conceptuses derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in mice undergo developmental arrest as a result of embryonic or extraembryonic defects. Even when fetuses survive to term, prominent placental overgrowth or placentomegaly is often present, indicating that SCNT affects the development of trophoblast cell lineage.

The study of visual perception and object recognition was once li

The study of visual perception and object recognition was once limited to investigations of brain-damaged individuals or lesion experiments in animals. However, in the last 25 years, new methodologies, such as functional neuroimaging buy APR-246 and advances in electrophysiological approaches, have provided scientists with the opportunity to examine this problem from new perspectives. This review highlights how some of these recent technological advances have contributed to the study of visual processing and where we now stand with respect to our understanding of neural mechanisms underlying object recognition.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Background: Arterial hypertension and premature coronary, artery disease are poorly understood complications of cardiac transplantation in children. Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk in adults. Pulse wave velocity

(PWV) may be used as a surrogate for arterial rigidity. In this study We investigate PWV in children after cardiac transplantation.\n\nMethods: Sitting blood pressure was Measured in 22 children (>6 months after transplantation) and 95 controls and PWV was measured using the SphygmoCor device by high-fidelity applanation tonometry at the carotid, radial and femoral arteries.\n\nResults: The transplant group was significantly older than the control group (13.4 years vs 11.1 years; p 0.006), but there was no significant height or weight GSK2245840 difference. The diastolic (but not systolic) pressure was

significantly higher in the transplant group (75 ram Hg vs 65 mm Hg; C188-9 in vivo p = 0.003). Aortic (carotid/femoral) PWV was significantly associated with age, height, weight (in the control group only) and systolic blood pressure according to univariate analysis, whereas brachial (carotid/radial) PWV was unrelated to these. According to multivariate analysis, height accounted best for all relationships with aortic PWV, and age and weight for brachial PWV. Using multivariate analysis, PWV was significantly higher in the cardiac transplant group for brachial (7.6 m/s vs 6.6 m/s; p < 0.01) and aortic (5.3 m/s vs 4.7 m/s; p < 0.001) measurements. The relation between length of time since transplantation and aortic PWV was statistically significant (p < 0.01).\n\nConclusions: Arterial rigidity is increased in children after cardiac transplantation. An improved understanding of blood pressure and arterial stiffness may help inform the choice of blood pressure medication in these patients. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009 28:21-5. Copyright (C) 2009 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.”
“Aerobic granular sludge is a new type of microbe auto-immobilization technology; in this paper, short-cut nitrification and denitrification were effectively combined with the granular sludge technology.